Wednesday, October 7, 2009

WHO pain relief ladder in cancer palliation therapy

  • WHO has developed a three-step "ladder" for cancer pain relief.
  • If pain occurs, there should be prompt oral administration of drugs in the following order
  • nonopioids (aspirin and paracetamol)
  • then, as necessary, mild opioids (codeine)
  • then strong opioids such as morphine, until the patient is free of pain.
  • To calm fears and anxiety, additional drugs – “adjuvants” – should be used.
  • To maintain freedom from pain, drugs should be given “by the clock”, that is every 3-6 hours, rather than “on demand”
  • This three-step approach of administering the right drug in the right dose at the right time is inexpensive and 80-90% effective.
  • Surgical intervention on appropriate nerves may provide further pain relief if drugs are not wholly effective.
  • (image)

Posted via web from Inquisitives' posterous

1 comment:

Proxies Century said...

Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disease, and the small intestine due to ingestion of gluten (wheat protein) genetically susceptible individuals. Together with the HLA DQ2 and DQ8. For more information go to